Diabetes follow-up

 This follow-up plan for patients with diabetes mellitus is presented in an integrated Spanish and English language format (download the diabetes follow up template).

The intake form can be used for diabetes patients reporting for follow-up. It is outlined as follows

  • Current medication list
  •  Recent hospitalizations
  • Exercise plan
  • Meal plan
  • Screening appointments (Eye, dental, foot)
  • New or chronic symptoms relevant to the care of a diabetes patient
  • Glucose trends (hypoglycemia risk and its impact on patient care)

Cholesterol Screening

If you have diabetes, one of the most important things you can do to protect your health is to get regular cholesterol screenings. High cholesterol is a major risk factor for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death in people with diabetes. The good news is that cholesterol levels can be controlled through lifestyle changes and medication.

High cholesterol is a common problem in patients with diabetes. While there are many different treatments available, statins are often the first line of defense. Statins work by reducing the amount of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood. This can help to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. In addition, statins can also help to improve the function of the endothelium (the lining of the blood vessels). As a result, they can be an effective treatment for high cholesterol in diabetes. However, it is important to remember that statins come with a risk of side effects. These include muscle pain, gastrointestinal problems, and an increased risk of liver damage.

That’s why it’s so important to have a follow-up cholesterol screen after being diagnosed with diabetes. This way, your doctor can keep an eye on your cholesterol levels and make sure they stay within a healthy range.

Glucose Control

Maintaining glucose control is essential for people with diabetes. Uncontrolled blood sugar can lead to a variety of serious health complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and nerve damage. The best way to control blood sugar is to follow a healthy diet and exercise regularly.

However, sometimes these lifestyle changes are not enough to keep blood sugar levels under control. In these cases, medication may be necessary. There are a variety of different medications available to treat diabetes, and the best option for each individual will depend on a number of factors, including the severity of the condition and the person’s overall health.

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, while type 2 diabetes typically develops in middle-aged or older adults. Although there is no cure for diabetes, there are many treatments available that can help people manage the condition and live long, healthy lives. Medications are an important part of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. There are a variety of different medications available, and the best treatment plan for each person will vary depending on factors such as the type of diabetes, the severity of the condition, and other health concerns.

If you have diabetes, there are a number of different medications that can help to manage your condition. These include insulin, oral diabetes drugs, and non-insulin injectable diabetes drugs.

Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels. There are a variety of different types of insulin, and your doctor will work with you to determine which type is best for you.

Oral diabetes drugs help to control blood sugar levels by increasing the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas. These drugs include metformin, sulfonylureas, and meglitinides.

Non-insulin injectable diabetes drugs are also available. These drugs work by increasing the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas or by helping the body to use insulin more effectively. Injectable diabetes drugs include exenatide (bydureon), semaglutide (ozempic), dulaglutide (trulicity), tirzepatide and liraglutide (victoza).

Urine protein (microalbumin) screening

Microalbuminuria is increased urinary excretion of albumin, which is a protein found in blood. It is considered an early sign of kidney damage and is often used as a screening test for diabetes.

People with diabetes are at risk for developing microalbuminuria because high blood sugar can damage the kidneys. Microalbuminuria can also be a sign of other health conditions, such as hypertension or heart disease.

If you have diabetes, it is important to get screened for microalbuminuria at least once a year. Treatment for microalbuminuria includes tight control of blood sugar and blood pressure. If left untreated, microalbuminuria can progress to kidney failure and an eventual need for renal replacement therapy (dialysis).

Cigarette smoking

Smoking also makes it harder to control blood sugar levels once diabetes has developed. Therefore, if you smoke and have diabetes, it’s important to quit smoking as soon as possible.

There are many resources available to help you quit smoking, including nicotine replacement therapy and counseling. Talk to your doctor about what quitting smoking strategy might be right for you.

Eye Examination

Retinopathy is a condition that can lead to blindness and is a common complication of diabetes. Screening for retinopathy is therefore an important part of diabetes care.

There are two main types of screening tests for retinopathy:

1. Dilated eye exam: In this test, the doctor dilates (enlarges) your pupils with eye drops and then examines your retina for signs of damage.

2. Retinal photography: This test involves taking pictures of your retina. These pictures can be used to screen for retinopathy even when the pupil is not dilated.

Screening for retinopathy is recommended at least once a year for people with type 1 diabetes and at least once every two years for people with type 2 diabetes. If you have risk factors for retinopathy (such as high blood sugar levels), you may need to be screened more often.

If retinopathy is found early, it can be treated with laser surgery or other methods to prevent blindness. Therefore, it is important to get screened regularly.


In addition to the physical stress of managing diabetes, many people with diabetes also experience psychological stress. This is known as “diabetes distress.”

Diabetes distress can be caused by a number of factors, including the day-to-day challenge of managing diabetes, worries about complications or the future, and feeling like you’re never doing enough to control your blood sugar.

Psychosocial stress can also come from outside sources, such as family members or friends who don’t understand what it’s like to live with diabetes.

Foot exam

A foot examination is an important part of diabetes care. People with diabetes are at risk for developing foot problems, which can lead to serious complications.

During a foot examination, your doctor will check for signs of trouble, such as bunions, calluses, blisters, corns, ingrown toenails, and hammertoes. They will also check the sensation in your feet and the strength of your muscles and tendons.

If you have diabetes, it is important to have a foot examination at least once a year. Your doctor may recommend more frequent examinations if you have any existing foot problems or if you are at high risk for developing them.

Foot problems are a common complication of diabetes. In fact, about half of all people with diabetes will develop some form of foot problem over the course of their disease. Foot problems can lead to serious complications, such as ulcers, infections, and even amputation. That’s why it’s so important to catch them early and treat them promptly.

If you have diabetes, there are several things you can do to help prevent foot problems:

– Keep your blood sugar under control. Good blood sugar control can help reduce your risk for developing foot problems.

– Inspect your feet every day. Check for any cuts, scrapes, blisters, or other wounds. If you see anything that looks concerning, contact your doctor right away.

– Keep your feet clean and dry. Wash your feet every day with soap and water. Dry them thoroughly, especially between the toes.

– Wear shoes and socks that fit well. Ill-fitting shoes can cause blisters, calluses, and other problems. Make sure your shoes are comfortable and have plenty of room to accommodate any foot swelling.

– Don’t smoke. Smoking increases your risk of developing foot problems. It also slows down healing if you do develop a problem.

Blood pressure monitoring

If you have diabetes, you know that monitoring your blood sugar levels is important to keeping your condition under control. But did you know that monitoring your blood pressure is also important? High blood pressure is a common complication of diabetes, and it can make managing the condition more difficult. That’s why it’s important to keep an eye on your blood pressure and work with your doctor to keep it under control.

If you have diabetes and high blood pressure, there are a few things you can do to help manage both conditions:

– Work with your doctor to create a treatment plan. This plan may include medication to help control your blood sugar and blood pressure levels.

– Monitor your blood sugar and blood pressure levels regularly. Keep track of your numbers and share them with your doctor so they can adjust your treatment plan as needed.

– Stay active and eat a healthy diet. These lifestyle choices can help improve your overall health and may also help lower your blood pressure.

– Quit smoking. Cigarette smoking can make managing diabetes more difficult and can also increase your risk for complications from the condition. If you smoke, quitting is one of the best things you can do for your health.

Monitoring your blood pressure is an important part of managing diabetes. By working with your doctor and making healthy lifestyle choices, you can help keep both conditions under control.

Aspirin use

Aspirin is a medication that can help to prevent heart attacks and strokes. It is also sometimes used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Some people with diabetes may be advised to take aspirin every day to help lower their risk of having a heart attack or stroke.

Aspirin can interact with other medications, so it is important to talk to your doctor before starting any new medication, including aspirin. If you are already taking aspirin and develop side effects such as stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting, call your doctor right away.

Dental Care

If you have diabetes, it’s important to take good care of your teeth and gums. That means brushing and flossing regularly, and seeing your dentist for regular checkups.

People with diabetes are at higher risk for gum disease and tooth decay. Gum disease is an infection of the gums that can lead to tooth loss. Tooth decay is damage to the teeth that can also lead to tooth loss.

You can help prevent gum disease and tooth decay by:

-Brushing your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste

-Flossing every day

-Eating a healthy diet

-Visiting your dentist regularly for checkups and cleanings

If you have gum disease, your dentist may recommend a special mouthwash or toothpaste, or a deep cleaning of your teeth. If you have diabetes, it’s important to keep your blood sugar under control. High blood sugar can damage your nerves and blood vessels, which can lead to problems with your teeth and gums. So it’s important to see your doctor regularly to get your blood sugar checked, and to take any medications prescribed for diabetes.


The opinions expressed here represent the views of a practicing hormone specialist (endocrinologist) and must not substitute the advice of your health care provider. This blog post is written for a non-medical audience interested in learning more about hormonal disorders. The author has no commercial conflicts of interest to declare. Also, read our privacy policy.

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About the Author MyEndoConsult

The MyEndoconsult Team. A group of physicians dedicated to endocrinology and internal medicine education.

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