Histology of Endocrine Glands

The endocrine system plays a vital role in maintaining the body's delicate balance through the production and release of hormones. These chemical messengers regulate various physiological processes, such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. We will take a closer look at the histology of various endocrine glands, including the pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, pancreas, testis, ovaries, and adipose tissue. 

The Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland, located in the neck, plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and growth. Its primary function is to produce thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid gland is composed of spherical structures called follicles, which are lined by follicular cells responsible for hormone production. Between the follicles are parafollicular cells (C cells), which secrete calcitonin, a hormone involved in calcium homeostasis.

Papillary thyroid Carcinoma with psammatous calcifications (crushed)

Histology of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer,

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Hurthle cell carcinoma with a focus of vascular invasion into a thick capsule

Histology of Hurthle Cell Adenoma and Carcinoma

Hurthle Cell Adenoma Hurthle cell adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of

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Hashimoto’s thyroiditis characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate of thyroid parenchyma

Histology of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder

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Folllicular hyperplasia without inflammatory infiltrate clinically associated with graves disease Peripheral scalloping of colloid

Histology of Graves Disease

Graves' disease is an autoimmune condition that affects the thyroid gland, leading

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Follicular Carcinoma Histology

Follicular carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting

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Normal Thyroid Follicular Cells

Normal thyroid follicular cells, also known as thyrocytes, are the primary cell

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 University of Minnesota Medical School. Residency in anatomic and clinical pathology and fellowship in cytopathology at Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education in Rochester, Minnesota.


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